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INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION CENTER

IPMnet NEWS


December 2004, Issue no. 132
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005


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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

"Bio Bugs" Create Potential and Challenge

Nearly half a century after visionaries conceived of managing pest insects by altering the insects themselves, rather than their immediate environment, genetically modified insects (GMIs) have become a reality, thanks to modern science, but also a significant concern and challenge for scientists, publics, and governments.

"The ultimate acceptability of genetically modified arthropods by the 'general public,'" noted M.A. Hoy, biological control authority and author of INSECT MOLECULAR GENETICS, "will, in my opinion, depend on the efforts of regulatory agencies and scientists to engage them in developing regulations and risk assessment procedures." The implication of Dr. Hoy's comment: the approach used to bring genetically modified crops global commercial agriculture was neither a productive nor constructive model for introducing GMIs.

As early as 1975 scientists gathered at a conference (Asilomar, CA, USA) in an attempt to develop guidelines for GMI risk analysis. Most recently, the Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology (PIOFAB) hosted a two-day multidisciplinary workshop, "A Look at the Science and Public Policy Surrounding the Release of Genetically Modified Insects," in September 2004, where once again the loud and clear call came for regulation and public involvement.

Reporting on the PIOFAB workshop, in the November issue of ISB NEWS REPORT, P.B.C. Jones noted that participants discussed the novel regulatory issues posed by GMIs and pointed out the voids in, or total absence of, existing regulatory structures. "While concerns about regulation often focus on the release" of GMIs, Dr. Jones wrote, Dr. Hoy cited a need to develop a set of uniform guidelines "to govern the use of GM insects in the lab . currently assessed on a case-by-case basis, primarily by institutional biosafety committees."

Like GMOs, GMIs bear both potential for significant improved quality of life as well as negative risks. But, Dr. Jones emphasized, "public trust in transgenic insect technology will not be won simply by explaining how potential benefits exceed possible risk."

For more information about the PIOFAB conference, see: www.Pewagbiotech.org for: 1.) the file for the September 2004 PIOFAB workshop; and, 2.) the preceding (January 2004) PIOFAB paper, "Bugs in the System? Issues in the Science and Regulation of Genetically Modified Insects."P.B.C. Jones, PhillJones@nasw.org .M.A. Hoy, MAHoy@ifas.ufl.edu . excerpted, with thanks, from ISB NEWS REPORT, November 2004. www.isb.vt.edu. GLOBAL IPM "SNAPSHOTS"

California bio-trials are pitting a rust, Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis against a highly invasive, rapidly spread- ing weed, Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle). *> W. Bruckart, WBruckart@fdwsr.ars.usda.gov. Scientists in the Netherlands have identified two new types of genes to deter and control sucking pest insects such as aphids and thrips. *> M.A. Jongsma, Maarten.Jongsma@wur.nl. In trials using natural products to try to control roadside vegetation costs were 10 times more than one or two applications of glyphosate. *> S.L. Young, SLYoung@ucdavis.edu. German researchers found that Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) can be adequately managed in organic farming through correctly timed tillage and rotation with selected fodder crops. *> C. Perkrun, Perkrun@uni-hohenheim.de. Acetaminophen, preferably wrapped inside a dead mouse, proved an effective oral toxicant against Boiga irregularis (brown treesnake). *> P.J. Savarie, Peter.J.Savarie@usda.gov.
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

PUBLICATIONS PERUSED

The Lives of Nematodes Elevated interest in the realm of nematodes has triggered a series of texts focused on the biology and other aspects of these globally ubiquitous organisms. However, until the arrival of NEMATODE BEHAVIOR in 2004, there had not been a single modern publication devoted to a comprehensive review of nematode locomotion and orientation, feeding, and reproductive conduct, as well as biotic and abiotic interactions. To redress this void editor/scientists R. Gaugler and A.L. Bilgrami have woven together 13 chapters by an international group of experts discussing a wide range of factors related to nematode behavior. The result is a 444 page, hardbound monograph that coalesces fragmented literature of nematology and significantly expands the broad topic compared to N.A. Croll's pioneering 1970 volume, THE BEHAVIOR OF NEMATODES. *> CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK. cabi@cabi.org. Fax: 44-0-1491-833508. Web: www.cabi 44-0-1491-832111.

Weeds vs. Crops Revisited More than 20 years ago weed scientist R.L. Zimdahl published WEED-CROP COMPETITION, A REVIEW, that examined a basic concept for labeling some plants as "weeds:" their competitive interference with other plants, such as crops, that humans value. With the 2004, second edition, the discussion has expanded from the earlier version by aiming to summarize and synthesize the literature devoted to what is known about the numerous and complicated weed-crop competitive processes and why they occur. The new 232-page, hardbound monograph is organized into 11 chapters ranging from the elements plants compete forlight, nutrients, moistureto an ambitious concluding chapter, all based on more than 650 research papers. The three key findings are: there is ample evidence supporting the thesis that weeds compete with crops and nearly always reduce crop yield and quality; weed science can benefit from closer integration with plant ecology and greater emphasis on understanding plant coexistence; and last, modeling, already an important aspect of modern weed management, will become more so. *> Blackwell Professional, 2121 State Ave., Ames, IA 50014-8300, USA. Ashley.Mullen@blackwellprofessional.com . Fax: 1-515-292-3348. Web: www.blackwellprofession.com WEB, PUBLICATION, CD, AND VIDEO NOTES

SOYBEAN RUST INFORMATION Among recently developed resources providing information about Phakopsora sp. (soybean rust), an illustrated feature on the APSnet, "Soybean Rust: Is the U.S. Soybean Crop at Risk?" offers extensive background, life cycle data, surveillance techniques, a link to a national action plan for dealing with the problem, and numerous clear full color visuals to help identify infection symptoms. The feature article found at www.apsnet.org also presents specific management recommendations including an extensive list of fungicides reported to have been used in 11 countries, plus the results and references in each case. The timely feature report was prepared by M.R. Miles, R.D. Frederick, and G.L. Hartman (contact at: GHartman@uiuc.edu). *> American Phytopathological Society, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA. aps@scisoc.org.

COMPARING CROP CATEGORIES A study requested by the European Commission considered the agronomic and economic aspects of three crop categoriesconventional, GM, and organicand subsequently produced a long report in 2002, SCENARIOS FOR CO-EXISTENCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED, CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC CROPS IN EUROPEAN AGRICULTURE. The document, published through the Commission's Joint Research Center, is a synthesis of the results from six studies performed by different institutes. The findings are quite detailed though covering only the three crops for which GM varieties were available at the time of the study: oilseed rape for seed production; maize for animal feed production; and, potatoes for human consumption. Authors A-K. Bock, et al, focused on the adventitious presence of GM crops in organic or conventional production. Conclusions range widely based on a series of hypothetical questions. The 144-page report, EUR 20394EN, can be freely downloaded as:ftp.jrc.es

GLOBAL IPM PROJECT REPORT Activities during the eleventh year of the U.S. Agency for International Development-funded global IPM Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP) have been summarized in a recent 63-page report, IPM CRSP ANNUAL HIGHLIGHTS, Year 11, 2003-2004. Following an introduction ex-plaining the rationale, origin, goals, and operating structure of the complex program and its multiple participating partners around the world, the text focuses on projects in each of five operational georegions: Africa, Latin America, Asia, the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe. *> IPM CRSP, 1060 Litton Reaves Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0334, USA. Fax: 1-540-231-3519. IPM-dir@vt.edu. Phone: 1-540-231-3513. Web: www.ag.vt.edu

IPM MANUALS AND MORE The Univ. of California Statewide IPM Program offers an array of IPM manuals including: IPMIN PRACTICE: PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT; plus crop specific IPM manuals for: alfalfa hay, almonds, apples and pears, citrus, cole crops and lettuce, cotton, potatoes, rice, small grains, stone fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, walnuts, and floriculture and nurseries. The UC IPM Pest Management Guideline and Notes series encompasses well over 100 additional titles on all manner of pests and pathogens covering, identification, monitoring, management, and other relevant aspects. These are freely available as illustrated HTML and PDF files from the Program website: www.ipm.ucdavis.edu For IPM manuals and other publications, contact: ANR Communication Svcs., 6701 San Pablo Ave., Oakland, CA 94608, USA. Fax: 1-510-643-5470. anrcatalog@ucdavis.edu. Phone: 1-510-642-2431. Web: anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu.

PEST MANAGEMENT IN COTTON The New South Wales (Australia) Dept. of Primary Industries has published COTTON PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDE 2004-05, an up-to-date, 80-page file compiled by A. Johnson and T. Farrell. New elements in this July 2004 edition of the guide include: updated insect resistance management strategy; resistance management plan for selected GMO cotton crops; and, a summary of Roundup Ready (TM) technology usage. The Guide can be freely downloaded from: cotton.pi.csiro.au (click on "pest management guide for cotton link" and then "download PDF file" at bottom of page). *> Australian Cotton Cooperative Research Centre, Tech. Resource Ctr., ACRI, Locked Bag 59, Narrabri, NSW 2390, AUSTRALIA. Fax: 61-02-6799-1582. Phone: 61-02-6799-1534.

SITE FOR FRUIT FLY MATTERS Two scientists with long standing interests in tephritidae research and management have helped launch the Tephritid Workers Database (TWD) www.tephritid.org with a goal of filling an information gap for fellow tephritid workers and others coping with fruit flies worldwide. The TWD aims to establish a centralized repository of tephritid worker information as well as links to relevant literature. The site is designed to allow interested individuals to share and promote their research, and to list their experience and specialization. *> J. Hendrichs, Insect Pest Control, FAO/IAEA, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400 Vienna, AUSTRIA. J.Henrichs@iaea.org.

INDUSTRY SPONSORED WEBSITE The CropLife Foundationan offshoot of Croplife America, an agricultural chemical industry grouphas now established an attractive website, www.croplifefoundation.org that links to another sponsored activity, the Crop Protection Research Institute (CPRI). The site provides access to the Institute's various programs such as the National Pesticide Use Database, research briefs, pesticide links, commentary on pest management issues of the day, articles, and presentations. *> N. Reigner, NReigner@croplifefoundation.org.al.com. Phone: 1-515-292-0140. PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

PROFESSORECOLOGICAL WEED MANAGEMENT, Madison, WI, USA * Develop an innovative, nationally recognized extension and research program that will lead to implementation of ecologically-based weed management systems in all sectors of horticultural crop productionfruit, ornamental, and vegetable crops; deliver and implement environmentally responsible and economically feasible weed management strategies; conduct research that might include understanding weed or invasives population dynamics mechanisms, improving durability of weed management systems de-emphasizing herbicides, and other related aspects; develop material for course lectures; advise graduate students. * REQUIRES: PhD in weed science, horticulture, or related subjects; proven ability in written and verbal communication skills; postgraduate experience. CONTACT: J. Stier, Search Committee Chair, Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Phone: 1-608-262-1490. JStier@wisc.edu. Web: www.wssa.net

WEED RESEARCH SUPPORT SPECIALIST, Ithaca, NY, USA * Assist in planning, directing, and implementing field and greenhouse weed management research for vegetable crops within the Dept. of Horticulture; develop new non-chemical and herbicide recommendations; participate in data collection and grant proposals, presentations and workshops, publications, statistical analyses, management and staff supervision; maintain and operate farm equipment. * REQUIRES: BS (MS preferred) in agricultural science; minimum 3 years of experience with small plot agric. research techniques; NY State pesticide applicator's license; demonstrated ability to work closely with a variety of individuals; excellent organizational and communication skills. Position #03216. CONTACT: M.N. Niederhofer, mn15@cornell.edu. See: Web: www.ohr.cornell.edu (job posted 11/09/2004). EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES

WEED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM RAMPS UP The CLEARFIELD (TM) production system, combining herbicide-resistant seeds and specifically produced herbicides, has been introduced in certain crops and regions, and is said to be under development for canola, maize, oilseed rape, rice, sugarbeet and cane, sunflower, and wheat for all major global agronomic regions. CLEARFIELD (TM) technology does not involve introduction of genetic material from other sources and thus is characterized as a non-GMO (genetically modified organism) process. Seeds in the CLEARFIELD (TM) system have been engineered to tolerate CLEARFIELD (TM) herbicides (based on imidazolinone technology, which affects an enzyme found in plants, but not in animals, birds, fish, or insects) reputed to provide exceptional contact and soil activity to control the weeds most likely to be found in a particular crop and region. *> F. Castle, Global Marketing Communications & Planning Manager, BASF Corp., PO Box 13528, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3528, USA. Fax: 1-919-547-2121. CastleF@basf-corp.com. Phone: 1-919-547-2710. Web: www.clearfieldsystem.com.

INSECT "WALLPAPER" Want/need insect "wallpaper" on your computer monitor? A website at Rothamsted Research (a BBSRC institution in the UK) offers 20 clear, full color insect images that, with just three mouse clicks, can be easily and freely downloaded from the Rothamsted "DeBug" website at: www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM

FEATURED PAPER

Shift Needed in Augmentative Biocontrol A review of more than 140 augmentative biocontrol studies reported in the last 55 years led T. Collier and R. Van Steenwyk to conclude that: augmentation achieved target densities in about 15 percent of the case studies, failed 64 percent of the time, and was usually less effective than pesticides. In their paper, "A Critical Evaluation of Augmentative Biological Control," published in BIOLOGICAL CONTROL, the scientists identified 12 ecological factors implicated as potential limits on augmentation efficacy. Generally, augmentative releases also tended to be higher cost than pesticides. The authors' concluding recommendation calls for research to overcome ecological limits by sing combinations of natural species enemies alone or jointly with low-risk insecticides. *> T. Collier, TCollier@uwyo.edu. excerpted with thanks from BIOLOGICAL CONTROL, 31(2), 245-256, October 2004. THIS MONTH'S SELECTED TITLES

General "Eradication of Plant Pathogens and Nematodes During Composting: A Review," Noble, R., and S.J. Roberts. * PLANT PATH., 53(5), 548-568, October 2004. Phytopathology

"Effects of Crop Management Patterns on Coffee Rust Epidemics," Avelino, J., et al. * PLANT PATH., 53(5), 541-547, October 2004. "Induction of Systemic Resistance by Bacillus cereus Against Tomato Foliar Diseases Under Field Conditions," Silva, H.S., et al. * JRNL. OF PHYTOPATH., 152(6), 371-375, June 2004. Weed Science

"Application Method of Nitrogen Fertilizer Affects Weed Growth and Competition with Winter Wheat," Blackshaw, R.E. * WEED BIOL. AND MGMT., 4(2), 103-113, June 2004. "Integrating Arthropod Herbivory and Reduced Herbicide Use for Weed Management," Williams, M.M., et al. * WEED SCI., 52(6), 1018-1025, November 2004. Entomology

"Damage Loss Assessment and Control of the Cereal Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Winter Wheat," Buntin, G.D., et al. * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOM., 97(2), 374-382, April 2004. "Using Models to Estimate Parasitoid Impacts on Nontarget Host Abundance," Barlow, N.D., et al. * ENVIRON. ENTOM., 33(4), 941-948, August 2004. Nematology

"Evaluation of Crop Rotation and Other Cultural Practices for Management of Root-knot and Lesion Nematodes," Kratochvil, R.J., et al. * AGRON. JRNL., 96(5), 1419-1428, September-October, 2004. Vertebrate Management

"A Field Trial to Assess the Effects of Rabbit Grazing on Spring Barley," Dendy, J., et al. * ANNL. OF APPLD. BIOL., 145(1), 77-80, August 2004.
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U.S. REGIONAL IPM CENTERS AND THE IPM-CRSP --- news, developments

A Variety of Recent Publications

New York IPM Program The New York State IPM Program has published "The Year in Review, 2003-2004," an extensively illustrated, full color, 12-panel brochure describing the variety of IPM activities and collaborative linkages in action during the reporting period. *> NYS IPM, NYAES, Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY 14456, USA. nysipm@cornell.edu. Fax: 1-315-787-2360. Web: www.nysipm.cornell.edu. IPM Program Volume 10, no. 2, 2004, of the "The IPM Report" from Michigan State University's IPM Program uses a 10 page newsletter format and features a cluster of news style short articles. Several IPM projects are profiled, along with other news items, available resources, and staff information. *> MSU IPM Program, B18 FS&T Bldg., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. Web: www.ipm.msu.edu. Statewide IPM The Univ. of California Statewide IPM Program (UC-IPM) has published its 2003 UC IPM UPDATE, an annual report in popular format. The 16-page document discusses current activities, notes available informational materials, and lists program staff. *> UC IPM Program, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-8621, USA. Fax: 1-530-752-6004. Phone: 1-530-752-8350. Web: www.ipm.ucdavis.edu.
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)


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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries (only)

2004 No (N) ew or [R]evised listings reported for this year.

2005

(N) 03-07 January * ADVANCED LANDSCAPE PLANT IPM PHC SHORT COURSE, College Park, MD, USA. Contact: D. Wilhoit, Entomol. Dept., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. debrar@umd.edu. Phone: 1-301-405-3913. Web: www.raupplab.umd.edu 10 May * date, address corrected * 57TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CROP PROTECTION, Ghent, BELGIUM. Contact: K. De Jonghe, Dept. of Crop Prot., Fac. of Biosci. Engrg., Univ. of Ghent, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, BELGIUM. Kris.DeJonghe@ugent.be. Fax: 32-9-264-6238. Phone: 32-9-264-6021.

(N) 25-27 May * INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON INVASIVE PLANTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN TYPE REGIONS OF THE WORLD, Montpellier, FRANCE. Contact: S. Brunel, Cons. Bot. Natl. Med. de Porquerolles, 163 rue Auguste Broussonnet, 34090 Montpellier, FRANCE. S.Brunel@cbnmed.org. Fax: 33-0-49-923-2212. Phone: 33-0-49-923-2214. Web: www.ame (N) 17-18 August * 2ND VICTORIAN WEED CONFERENCE, "Smart Weed Control, Managing for Success," Bendigo, VIC, AUSTRALIA. Contact: R. Shepherd, WSSV, PO Box 987, Frankston, VIC 3199, AUSTRALIA. secwssv@surf.nte.au. Fax/phone: 61-03-9576-2949. Web: home.vicnet.net.au.

[R] 29-31 August * date corrected * INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOLOGICAL AND PRO-ECOLOGICAL METHODS FOR CONTROL OF DISEASES, PESTS, AND WEEDS IN ORCHARDS AND SMALL FRUIT PLANTATIONS, Warsaw, POLAND. Contact: P. Sobiczewski, Resch. Inst. of Pomo. and Flor., Pomologiczna 18, 96-100, Skierniewice, POLAND. Psobicz@insad.pl. Fax: 48-46-833-3228. Phone: 48-46-833-2021. Web: www.pomocentre.insad.pl. 12-16 September * new information * 2ND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ARTHROPODS, Davos, SWITZERLAND. Contact: U. Kuhlmann, ISBCA Secretariat, CABI Bioscience, Centre, CH-2800 Delemont, SWITZERLAND. isbca@bluewin.ch. Web: www.cabi (N) 21-24 September * 4TH MGPR INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM OF PESTICIDES IN FOOD AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES, AND MGPR ANNUAL MEETING, Kusadasi-Aydin, TURKEY. Contact: E. Gore, Bornova Plant Prot. Resch. Inst., Genclik Cad No. 6, 35040, Bornova/Izmir, TURKEY. mgpr-izmir@mgpr2005.com. Fax: 90-232-374-1653. Phone: 90-232-388-0030. Web: www.mgpr2005.com. (MGPRMediterranean Group of Pesticide Research).

(N) 24-25 October * 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MITES IN CROPS, Montpellier, FRANCE. Contact: AFPP, 6, Blvd. de la Bastille, 75012 Paris, FRANCE. afpp@afpp.net. Fax: 33-01-4344-2919. Phone: 33-01-4344-8964. Web: www.afpp.net. (N) 26-27 October * 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PESTS IN AGRICULTURE, Montpellier, FRANCE. Contact: AFPP (same as above).

2006

[R] 09 May * address corrected * 58TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CROP PROTECTION, Ghent, BELGIUM. Contact: K. De Jonghe, Dept. of Crop Prot., Fac. of Biosci. Engrg., Univ. of Ghent, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, BELGIUM. Kris.DeJonghe@ugent.be. Fax: 32-9-264-6238. Phone: 32-9-264-6021.

[R] 24-28 September * date corrected * 15TH AUSTRALIAN WEEDS CONFERENCE, "Managing Weeds in a Changing Climate," Adelaide, SA, AUSTRALIA. Contact: Plevin and Assoc. Pty. Ltd., PO Box 54, Burnside, 5066 SA, AUSTRALIA. events@plevin.com.au. Fax: 61-8-8379-8177. Phone: 61-8-8379-8222. Web: www.plevin.com.au 15-18 October * 16TH INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROTECTION CONGRESS, Glasgow, UK. Contact: C. Todd, BCPC, 7 Omni Biz. Ctr., Omega Park, Alton, Hampshire GU34 2QD, UK. md@bcpc.org. Fax: 44-0-1420-593209. Phone: 44-0-1420-593200.

2008, 2009, 2010

No (N) ew or [R]evised listings reported for these years.
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