Compendium of IPM Definitions (CID)
"A Collection of IPM Definitions and their Citations in Worldwide IPM Literature"


Authors: Waheed Ibrahim Bajwa and Marcos Kogan

1950-69 1970-79 1980-89 1990-98


1950-1969

1.  Integrated control is defined as: "Applied pest control which combines and integrates biological and chemical control. Chemical control is used as necessary and in a manner which is least disruptive to biological control. Integrated control may make use of naturally occurring biological control as well as biological control effected by manipulated or induced biotic agents". (Stern, V. M., R. F. Smith, R. van den Bosch, and K. S. Hagen. 1959. The integrated control concept. Hilgardia, 29: 81-101).

Cited by:

  • Bor, Y. J. 1995. Optimal pest management and economic threshold. Agric. Systems. 49: 113-133.   
  • Cate, J. R. and M. K. Hinkle. 1994. Integrated Pest Management: the path of a paradigm. The National Audubon Society Special Report. 43 pp.
  • Edwards, C. A. and H. D. Thurston. 1991. Integrated nutrition management for crop production. pp. 105-108. In Towards sustainability. National Res. Council. Washington, D. C. 145 pp.
  • Hutchins, S. H. 1995. Free-enterprises- the only sustainable solution to IPM implementation. J. Agric. Entomol. 12: 211-217.
  • Lim, G. S. and P. A. Ooi. 1984. Integrated pest management concept: perception and implication in Malaysia. pp. 19-35. In Integrated pest management in Malaysia, B. S. Lee, W. H. Loke and K. L. Heong (eds.). MAPPS and MARDI. 335 pp.
  • Olkowski, W. and S. Daar. 1991. Common sense pest control. Taunton Press. 715 pp.
  • Pedigo, L. P. 1995. Closing the gap between IPM theory and practice. J. Agric. Entomol. 12: 171-181.
  • Peterson Jr., G. D. 1974. Pest management: concepts, objectives, and problems. East-West Food Institute, No. 2. Honolulu, Hawaii. 157 pp.
  • Smith, R. F. 1978. History and complexity of integrated pest management. pp. 41-53. In Pest control strategies, E. H. Smith and D. Pimentel (eds.), Academic Press, N. Y. 334 pp.
  • Smith, R. F., J. L. Apple and D. G. Bottrell. 1976. The origins of integrated pest management concepts for agricultural crops. pp. 1-17. In Integrated pest management, J. L. Apple and R. F. Smith (eds.). Plenum Press. N. Y. 200 pp.
  • Steffy, K. L. 1995. IPM today - are we fulfilling expectations. J. Agric. Entomol. 12: 183-190.
  • Stoner, K. A., A. J. Sawyer and A. M. Shelton. 1986. Constraints to the implementation of IPM programs in USA - a course outline. Agri. Ecosyst. & Environ. 17: 253-268.
  • Tauber, M. J., M. A. Hoy and D. C. Herzog. 1985. Biological control in agricultural IPM system: a brief overview of the current status and future prospects. pp. 3-23. In Biological control in agricultural IPM systems, M. A. Hoy and D. C. Herzog (eds.). Academic Press, Inc. N. Y. 589.
  • Teng, P. S. and S. Savary. 1992. Implementing the systems-approach in pest management. Agric. Syst. 40: 237-264.
  • Wildbolz, T. 1994. Integrated plant protection - goals, developments. Revue Suisse De Zoologie, 101: 905-909.


2.  "Integrated control is in fact a program of arthropod population management designed to keep populations below economic tolerance levels by maximizing environmental resistance and supplementing this by the use of selective pesticide applications in economic levels are exceeded". (Pickett, A. D. and A. W. MacPhee. 1965. Twenty years' experience with integrated control programs in Nova Scotia apple orchards. Proc. XIIth International Congr. Ent. London. 597 pp.)

Cited by:

  • Fluiter, H. J. and G. Mathys.1966. Techniques of integration. In FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control Vol. 1: 9-11.


3.  "Integrated pest control is a pest population management system that utilizes all suitable techniques in a compatible manner to reduce pest populations and maintain them at levels below those causing economic injury". (Smith, R. F. and H. T. Reynolds. 1966. Principles, definitions and scope of integrated pest control. Proc. FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control 1: 11-17.)


4.   "Integrated control is a pest management system that in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible a manner as possible and maintains the pest populations at levels below those causing economic injury". FAO. 1967. Report of the first session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Integrated Pest Control, Rome (Italy), Sept. 18-22, 1967, 19 pp.]

Cited by:

  • Cate, J. R. and M. K. Hinkle. 1994. Integrated Pest Management: the path of a paradigm. The National Audubon Society Special Report. 43 pp.
  • Dent, D. R. 1995. Integrated pest management. Chapman & Hall, London. 356 pp.
  • Edwards, C. A., H. D. Thurston and R. Jake. 1991. Integrated pest management for sustainability in developing countries. pp. 109-133. In Towards sustainability. National Res. Council. Washington, D. C. 145 pp.
  • Frisbie, R. E. and P. L. Adkisson. 1985. IPM: definitions and current status in U. S. Agriculture. pp. 41-51. In Biological control in agricultural IPM systems, H. A. Hoy and D. C. Herzog (eds.), Academic Press, Inc. N. Y. 598 pp.
  • Glass, E. H. (Coordinator). 1975. Integrated pest management: rationale, potential, needs and implementation. Entomol. Soc. Am. Special Publ. 75-2. 141 pp.
  • Glass, E. H. 1976. Pest management: principles and philosophy. pp. 39-57. In Integrated pest management, J. L. Apple and R. F. Smith. Plenum Press. N. Y. 200 pp.
  • Huffaker, C. B. and R. F. Smith. 1980. Rationale, organization and development of a national integrated pest management project. pp. 1-24. In New technology of pest control, John Wiley & Sons. N. Y. 500 pp.
  • Senft, D. 1995. IPM goes areawide. Agric. Res. 43: 4-8.
  • Sill Jr., W. H.1978. The plant protection discipline: problems and possible developmental strategies. John Wiley & Sons. N. Y. 190 pp.
  • Smith, R. F. 1978. History and complexity of integrated pest management. pp. 41-53. In Pest control strategies, E. H. Smith and D. Pimentel (eds.), Academic Press, N. Y. 334 pp.
  • van Alebeek. 1989. Integrated pest management: a catalogue of training and extension materials. Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, Wageningen Agric. Univ. Netherlands. 305 pp.
  • Zadoks, J. C. 1993. Crop protection: why and how. pp. 48-55. In Crop protection and sustainable agriculture. CIBA Foundation Symposium 177. 285 pp.


5.   "Integrated control is a pest population management system that utilizes all suitable techniques either to reduce pest populations and maintain them at levels below those causing economic injury or to so manipulate the populations that they are prevented from causing such injury". (Smith, R. F. and R. van den Bosch. 1967. Integrated Control. pp. 295-340. In Pest control: biological, physical and selected chemical methods, Wendell W. Kilglore and Richard L. Doutt (eds.), Academic Press, New York. 477 pp.)

Cited by:

  • Cate, J. R. and M. K. Hinkle. 1994. Integrated Pest Management: the path of a paradigm. The National Audubon Society Special Report. 43 pp.
  • Hill, D. 1975. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. 516 pp.
  • Knipling, E. F. 1979. The basic principles of insect population suppression and management. Agri. Handbook No. 512. USDA. Washington, D. C. 659 pp.


6.   "Utilization of all suitable techniques to reduce and maintain pest populations at levels below those causing injury of economic importance to agriculture and forestry, or bringing two or more methods of control into a harmonized system designed to maintain pest levels below those at which they cause harm - a system that must rest on firm ecological principles and approaches." (National Academy of Science. 1969. Insect-pest management and control. pp. 448-449. Vol. 3. Principles of plant and animal pest control. Natl. Acad. Sci. Pub. 1695. 508 pp.)

Cited by:

  • Knipling, E. F. 1979. The basic principles of insect population suppression and management. Agri. Handbook No. 512. USDA. Washington, D. C. 659 pp.
  • Olkowski, W. and S. Daar. 1991. Common sense pest control. Taunton Press. 715 pp.


7. " Integrated Control- Applied pest control that combines and integrates biological and chemical control measures into a single unified pest-control program. Chemical control is used only where and when necessary, and in a manner that is least disruptive to beneficial regulating factors of the environment. It may make use of naturally occurring insect parasites, predators, and pathogens, as well as those biotic agents artificially increased or introduced". [Subcommitte on Insect Pests (National Academy of Sciences). 1969. Integrated systems of pest management. In Principles of Plant and Animal Control, Vol.3: Insect -Pest Management and Control, Publication 1695, Committee on Plant and Animal Pests, Agriculture Board, National Academy of Sciences- National Research Council, Washington,USA]


8. " Integrated Control- An ecological approach to pest management in which all available necessary techniques are consolidated into a unified program, so that populations can be managed in such a manner that economic damage is avoided and adverse side effects are minimized". [Subcommitte on Insect Pests [Subcommitte on Insect Pests (National Academy of Sciences). 1969. Integrated systems of pest management. In Principles of Plant and Animal Control, Vol.3: Insect -Pest Management and Control, Publication 1695, Committee on Plant and Animal Pests, Agriculture Board, National Academy of Sciences- National Research Council, Washington,USA]


9. " Integrated Control- A program of arthropod-population management designed to keep pest populations below economic tolerance levels by maximizing environmental resistance and supplementing this by use of selective pesticides applications if economic tolerance levels are threatenedquot;. [Subcommitte on Insect Pests (National Academy of Sciences). 1969. Integrated systems of pest management. In Principles of Plant and Animal Control, Vol.3: Insect -Pest Management and Control, Publication 1695, Committee on Plant and Animal Pests, Agriculture Board, National Academy of Sciences- National Research Council, Washington,USA]


10. " Integrated Control- Utilization of all suitable techniques to reduce and maintain pest populations at levels below those causing injury of economic importance to agriculture and forestry, or bringing together two or more methods of control into a harmonized system designed to maintain pests at levels below those at which they cause harm-a system that must rest on firm ecological principles and approaches. [Subcommitte on Insect Pests (National Academy of Sciences). 1969. Integrated systems of pest management. In Principles of Plant and Animal Control, Vol.3: Insect -Pest Management and Control, Publication 1695, Committee on Plant and Animal Pests, Agriculture Board, National Academy of Sciences- National Research Council, Washington,USA]







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 © 1996. Integrated Plant Protection Center (IPPC), 
Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon