Compendium of IPM Definitions (CID)
"A Collection of IPM Definitions and their Citations in Worldwide IPM Literature"


Index of CID

1950-69 1970-79 1980-89 1990-98



IPM Definitions


1970-79

1. "Pest management is the reduction of pest problems by actions selected after the life systems of the pests are understood and the ecological as well as economic consequences of these actions have been predicted, as accurately as possible, to be in the best interest of mankind". "In development a pest management program, priority is given to understanding the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in causing seasonal and annual change in pest populations" (Rabb, R. L. and F. E. Guthrie, 1970. Concepts of pest management. Proceedings. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. 242 pp.)

Cited by:

  • Cate, J. R. and M. K. Hinkle. 1994. Integrated Pest Management: the path of a paradigm. The National Audubon Society Special Report. 43 pp.


2. "An approach that employs a combination of techniques to control the wide variety of potential pests that may threaten crops. It involves maximum reliance on natural pest population controls, along with a combination of techniques that may contribute to suppression- cultural methods, pest-specific diseases, resistant crop varieties, sterile insects, attractants, augmentation of parasites or predators, or chemical pesticides as needed". [Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). 1972. Integrated pest management, U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 41 pp.]

Cited by:

  • Cate, J. R. and M. K. Hinkle. 1994. Integrated Pest Management: the path of a paradigm. The National Audubon Society Special Report. 43 pp.


3. " Integrated pest management is a strategy of pest containment which seeks to maximize natural control forces such as predators and parasites, and to utilize other tactics only as needed and with a minimum of environmental disturbance". [Glass, E. H. (Coordinator). 1975. Integrated pest management: rationale, potential, needs and implementation. Entomol. Soc. Am. Special Publ. 75-2. 141 pp.]

Cited by:

  • Davis, D. W. and J. A. McMurtry. 1979. Introduction. p. I. In Biological control and insect pest management, S. C. Hoyt, J. A. McMurtry and M. T. AliNiazee (eds.). 102 pp.


4. " Integrated pest management is an approach which maximizes natural controls of pest populations and utilizes man-initiated actions only when it is highly probable that a pest population will exceed an economic injury level". (Sauer, R. J. 1977. Pest management: rationale, implementation and further needs. pp. 12-14. Proceedings of National Pest management Workshop 1977, Kansas City, Missouri. USDA and Missouri State Extension Service. 177 pp.)


5. "Integrated pest control is a multidisciplinary, ecological approach to the management of pest populations, which utilizes a variety of control tactics compatibly in a single coordinated pest management system." [Smith, R. F. 1978. History and complexity of integrated pest management. pp. 41-53. In Pest control strategies, E. H. Smith and D. Pimentel (eds.), Academic Press, N. Y. 334 pp.]

Cited by:

  • Smith, R. F. and J. L. Apple. 1978. Principles of integrated pest control. pp. 1-7. In Regional training seminar on integrated pest control for rice in South and Southeast Asia, sponsored by FAO and USAID. IRRI, Philippine.


6. "Integrated Pest Management is the optimization of pest control in an economically and ecologically sound manner. This is accomplished by the use of multiple tactics in a compatible manner to maintain pest damage below the economic injury level while providing protection against hazards to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. [Experimental Station Committee on Organization and Policy (ESCOP) & Intersociety Consortium for Plant Protection (Apple, J. L., P. S. Benepal, R. Berger, G. W. Bird, W. G. Ruesink, F. G. Maxwell, P. Santlemann and G. B. White. 1979. Integrated pest management, a program of research for the state agricultural experimental stations and the colleges of 1890. 190 pp.)]

Cited by:

  • Cate, J. R. and M. K. Hinkle. 1994. Integrated Pest Management: the path of a paradigm. The National Audubon Society Special Report. 43 pp.
  • Metcalf, R. L. and W. H. Luckmann. 1994. Introduction to insect pest control. John Wiley & Son, Inc. N. Y. 650 pp.


7. "Integrated Pest Management is the selection, integration, and implementation of pest control based on predicted economic, ecological, and sociological consequences". (Bottrell, D. G. 1979. Integrated pest management. Council on Environmental Quality. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 120 pp.)

Cited by:

  • Davidson, J. A and M. J. Raupp. Landscape IPM. Cooperative Extension Service. Bull. 350. Univ. Of Maryland. 106 pp.
  • Lim, G. S. and P. A. Ooi. 1984. Integrated pest management concept: perception and implication in Malaysia. pp. 19-35. In Integrated pest management in Malaysia, B. S. Lee, W. H. Loke and K. L. Heong (eds.). MAPPS and MARDI. 335 pp.
  • Olkowski, W. and S. Daar. 1991. Common sense pest control. Taunton Press. 715 pp.
  • Tauber, M. J., M. A. Hoy and D. C. Herzog. 1985. Biological control in agricultural IPM system: a brief overview of the current status and future prospects. pp. 3-23. In Biological control in agricultural IPM systems, M. A. Hoy and D. C. Herzog (eds.). Academic Press, Inc. N. Y. 589.


8. "Integrated pest management (IPM) is the optimization of pest control in an economically and ecologically sound manner, accomplished by the coordinated use of multiple tactics to assure stable crop production and to maintain pest damage below the economic injury level while minimizing hazards to humans, animals, plants, and the environment". (Office of Technology Assessment. 1979. Pest Management Strategies Crop Protection. Vol. 1. Congress of the United State. Washington. D. C. 132 pp.)

Cited by:

  • Anonymous. 1992. Integrated pest management (IPM) in Canada and the United States. Pest Management Section, Plant Industry Branch, Ministry of Agri. and Food. Ontario, Canada. 43 pp.
  • Bode, L. E. 1990. Agricultural chemical application practices to reduce environmental contamination. Amer. J. Indust. Medicine. 18: 485-489.
  • Dover, M. J. 1985. A better mousetrap: improving pest management for agriculture. World Resource Institute, Washington D. C. 37 pp.
  • Hall, R. 1995. Challenges and prospects of integrated pest management. pp. 1-19. In Novel approaches to integrated pest management, R. Reuveni (ed.), Lewis Publishers. London. pp. 369 pp.


9. "Integrated pest management is 'the use of multiple control measures which are compatible, economical, environmentally sound and culturally feasible for managing pest populations at an acceptable level'." [Tweedy, B. G. 1979. The role of chemicals in integrated pest management. pp. 19-25. In Pest management in transition: with a regional focus on the interior west, Pieter de Jong (edit.), Westview Press/Boulder, Colorado. 141 pp.]


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IPM Definitions


1980-89


1. " Integrated pest management (IPM) is an interdisciplinary approach incorporating the judicious application of the most efficient methods of maintaining pest populations at tolerable levels". "Recognition of the problems associated with widespread pesticide application has encouraged the development and utilization of alternative pest control techniques. Rather than employing a single control tactic, attention is being directed to the coordinated use of multiple tactics, an approach known as integrated pest management". (FAO. 1980. Research Summary. Integrated pest management. EPA-600/8-80-044. 28 pp.

2. "Integrated Pest Management considers any and all combinations of various techniques for the management of weed, insect, disease, and animal pest problems within the context of the farming system". (Agricultural Experiment Station, International Plant Protection Center and Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Oregon State University. 1981. Economics of integrated pest management: an interpretive review of the literature. Oregon State University. 142 pp.)

Cited by:

  • Lim, G. S. and P. A. Ooi. 1984. Integrated pest management concept: perception and implication in Malaysia. pp. 19-35. In Integrated pest management in Malaysia, B. S. Lee, W. H. Loke and K. L. Heong (eds.). MAPPS and MARDI. 335 pp.


3. "A method of pest management which decreases (and perhaps even avoids) the use of non selective methods of suppression." (Corbet, P. S. 1981. Non-entomological impediments to the adoption of integrated pest management. Protect. Ecol. 3: 183-202.)

Cited by:

  • Levins, R. 1987. Perspectives in integrated pest management: from an industrial to an ecological model of pest management. pp. 1-18. In Ecological theory and integrated pest management practice, Marcos Kogan (ed.). John Wiley & Sons, N. Y. 362 pp.)



4. "Integrated pest management (IPM) is an ecologically based pest control strategy that relies heavily on natural mortality factors such as natural enemies and weather and seeks out control tactics that disrupt these factors as little as possible. IPM uses pesticides, but only after systematic monitoring of pest populations and natural control factors indicates a need. Ideally, an integrated pest management program considers all available pest control actions, including no action, and evaluates the potential interaction among various control tactics, cultural practices, weather, other pests, and the crop to be protected". (Flint, M. L. and R. Van den Bosch. 1981. Introduction to integrated pest management. Plenum Press, New York, 240 pp.)

Cited by:

  • Olkowski, W. and S. Daar. 1991. Common sense pest control. Taunton Press. 715 pp.
  • Saarenmma, H. 1992. Integrated pest management in forests and information technology. J. appl. Entomol. 114: 321-332.
  • Tauber, M. J., M. A. Hoy and D. C. Herzog. 1985. Biological control in agricultural IPM system: a brief overview of the current status and future prospects. pp. 3-23. In Biological control in agricultural IPM systems, M. A. Hoy and D. C. Herzog (eds.). Academic Press., Inc. N. Y. 589 pp.



5. "IPM is defined as the use of two or more tactics in a compatible manner to maintain the population of one or more pests at acceptable levels in the production of food and fiber while providing protection against hazards to humans, domestic animals, plants, and the environment". (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. 1982. Integrated pest management. Report No. 93, 105 pp.)


6. " Integrated pest management (control) is a pest management system- a combination of arthropod and other pest control procedures. It is usually a system approach to pest management within the context of a particular environment, taking into account the population dynamics of a particular pest species". (Sill Jr., W. H. 1982. Plant Protection an integrated interdisciplinary approach. Iowa State. Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa. 297 pp.)


7. "IPM means 'intelligent pest management'." (Zweig G. and A. Aspelin. 1983. The role of pesticides in developing countries. In Formulation of pesticides in developing countries. United Nations Industrial Developing Organization.)

Cited by:

  • Levins, R. 1987. Perspectives in integrated pest management: from an industrial to an ecological model of pest management. pp. 1-18. In Ecological theory and integrated pest management practice, Marcos Kogan (ed.). John Wiley & Sons, N. Y. 362 pp.)


8. "IPM is a broad ecological approach to plant protection utilizing a variety of control technologies compatible in a single pest management system with the ultimate objective of producing an optimum crop yield at minimum cost." [Cisneros, H. Fausto. 1984. The need for integrated pest management in developing countries. p. 27. In Integrated Pest Management. International Potato Center (CIP). 257 pp.]


9. "Integrated pest management (IPM) envisages the bringing down of pest damage to tolerable levels through logical and justified integration of diverse techniques such as the use of natural enemies, adoption of pest resistant varieties of crops, provision of inhospitable pest environment and optimum use of appropriate kind of chemical pesticide, if necessary." [Bajwa, Mohammed Ibrahim. 1984. Integrated Pest Management in AJK. Govt. Press, MZD. 4 pp.]


10. "Integrated pest management (IPM) is a strategy for keeping plant damage within bounds by carefully monitoring crops, predicting trouble before it happens, and then selecting the appropriate controls- biological, cultural or chemical control as necessary." [Yepsen Jr., R. B. (ed.). 1984. The Encyclopedia of Natural insect and disease control. Rodale Press, Penn. 490 pp.]


11. "IPM (Integrated Pest Management) implies the effective use of as many control measures as are compatible, in order to suppress pest populations below damaging levels and optimizing yields with minimum disruption of, or damage to, the environment." [Jackai, L.E.N. and R.A. Daoust. 1986. Insect Pests of Cow Peas. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 31:95-119.]


12. "The broadest definition of integrated pest management is 'the ecological approach to insect control'." [Metcalf, R. L., 1986. The ecology of insecticides and the chemical control of insects. pp. 251-297. In Ecological theory and integrated pest management practice, Marcos Kogan (ed.). John Wiley & Sons, N. Y. 362 pp.]


13. "Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a structured approach to ecosystem management based on a general understanding of the ecology, uses and interactions of the plant species within it." [Johnson, K. L. 1987. Sagebrush types as ecological indicators to integrated pest management (IPM) in the sagebrush ecosystem of western north America. pp. 1-10. In Integrated pest management on rangeland: state of the art in the sagebrush ecosystem, J. A. Onsager (ed.). USDA. ARS-50. 85 pp.]


14. "Integrated pest management is a pest population management system that anticipates and prevent pests from reaching damaging levels by using all suitable techniques, such as natural enemies, pest resistant plants, cultural management and judicious use of pesticides". (National Coalition on Integrated Pest Management (NCIPM). 1987. Integrated pest management. Austin, TX.)

Cited by:

  • Sorensen, A. A. 1993. Constraints to the adoption of integrated pest management. National Foundation for Integrated Pest Management Education (NFIPME), Austin, TX. 60 pp.



15. " Integrated pest management is a multidisciplinary approach to the control techniques in a specific production management system and in a combination most acceptable from the sociological, environmental and economic view points." [Onate, P. J. U. and M. R. Cariaso. 1988. Integrated pest management on major food crops in southeast Asia: an abstract bibliography (1977-1987). Agricultural Information Bank for Asia and National Crop Protection Center, Univ. Philippines, Los Banos. 173 pp.]


16. "IPM is an ecologically-based pest control strategy that relies on natural mortality factors such as natural enemies, weather, and crop management and seeks control tactics that disrupt these factors as little as possible". (National Academy of Science, Board on Agriculture. 1989. Alternative agriculture, 448 pp.)


17. "A pest control strategy based on the determination of an economic threshold that indicates when pest population is approaching the level at which control measures are necessary to prevent a decline in net returns. In principle, IPM is an ecologically based strategy that relies on natural mortality factors and seeks control tactics that disrupt these factors as little as possible". (National Research Council, Board on Agriculture. 1989. Alternative agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.)

Cited by:

  • Batie, S. S. 1990. Alternative agriculture. Environ. 32: 25-28.
  • Pedigo, L. P. 1995. Closing the gap between IPM theory and practice. J. Agric. Entomol. 12: 171-181.
  • Stenholm, C. W. and D. B. Waggoner. 1990. Low-input, sustainable agriculture- myth or method. J. Soil & Water Conserv. 45: 13-17.
  • Vandeman, A., J. Fernandez-Cornejo, S. Jans and B. Lin. 1994. Adoption of integrated pest management in U. S. Agriculture. Agri. Information Bull. 707. USDA. 28 pp.



18. " Integrated control- Control of pests that emphasizes selective use of insecticides so as to conserve natural enemies in the agroecosystem." [Pedigo, L.P. 1989. Entomology and Pest Management. Macmillan Pub. Co., Inc. N.Y. 646 pp.]


19. "IPM is a comprehensive approach to pest control that uses combined means to reduce the status of pests to tolerable levels while maintaining a quality environment." (Pedigo, L.P. 1989. Entomology and pest management, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. N.Y. 646 pp.)

Cited by:

  • Wallace, M. 1993. The National Coalition on Integrated Pest Management (NCIPM): working for safer food, cleaner water, and wildlife conservation through expanded implementation of integrated pest management . pp. 1-8. In Successful implementation of integrated pest management for agricultural crops, Leslie, A. R. and G. W. Cuperus (eds.), Lewis Publishers, London. 193 pp.



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 © 1996. Integrated Plant Protection Center (IPPC), 
Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon